22 May 2018

Nipah virus - Current Affairs topic for Civil Services

Nipah virus


The Kerala and the Central government authorities as well as the medical community have stepped up efforts to contain the threat of a possible outbreak of the nipah virus infection, which has so far claimed at least 4 lives in Kozhikode district.

G Arun Kumar of the Manipal Academy of virus research, who visited Changaroth, said the source of the infection might be the bats in a well in the house of the deceased.
Nipah virus - Current Affairs topic for Civil Services
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Identifying a Colony of bats inside a well in the compound of a house belonging to the family of two of the deceased, has, however given them a sense of direction.

A team of 20 experts from various government Agencies where at Soopikkada to catch the bats.

There are two types of bats found in India, the fruit eating ones and the insectivorous bats. Fruit eating bats are the carriers of nipah virus. One can get infected by getting into contact with their excretion or by eating fruits bitten by them.

The World Health Organisation has said the primary treatment for human cases of zika virus infection is intensive support care. Nipah virus infection in humans has the range of clinical presentations, from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory syndrome and fatal encephalitis. Nipah virus is also capable of causing diseases in pigs and other domestic animals. There is no vaccine for either humans or animals. Nipah virus infection is a newly emerging zoonosis that causes severe diseases in both animals and humans.

The natural host of the virus or fruit bats of the Pteropodiddae family, Pteropus genus.

Nipah virus was first identified during an outbreak of disease that took place in Kampung Sungai Nipah, Malaysia in 1998. Then, pigs were intermediate host. However, in subsequent nipah virus outbreak, there were no intermediate host.
According to the guidelines given by the World Health Organisation, the spread of the disease has to be prevented by breaking the chain of transmission. Caregivers have to be on alert as they risk the danger of contracting the disease. They should use protective gear such as gloves and mask while taking care of patients, and should wash their hands with soap. Those infected have to be kept in isolation.

Basically, nipah virus spreads from animals to animals. It spreads to humans from bats or pigs. The disease also spread from humans to humans. When should take steps to prevent food items and drink from coming into contact with bats, bat faeces or urine that could contain the virus. The virus could also spread through bat bitten fruits. Fever, cough, stomach ache, nausea, vomiting, exhaustion, Blurred vision are some of the symptoms of the virus.

Precautionary measures:


  • People should ensure that food items, drinks do not come into contact with bat, bat feces or urine.
  • Public urged to avoid eating bat bitten fruits
  • Caregivers are directed to use protective gears such as gloves and mask while taking care of patients.
  • Those infected with virus should be kept in isolation.

19 January 2018

A federal structure for India - Indian Polity for UPSC Civil Services

A federal structure for India


A federal structure for India was put forward by the Act of 1935

The Government of India Act 1935 is a voluminous and final constitutional effort at the governing British India.

Also Read: Effect of GOI act 1935 on our Constitution

It articulated three major goals.

They are:



  1. Establishing a loose Federal structure 
  2. Provincial autonomy 
  3. Safeguarding minority interest through separate electorates

However in February 1937 provincial autonomy became a reality when elections were held.

Federal provisions were intended to unite princely states and British India at the centre.

The federal provisions were not implemented as of ambiguities in safeguarding the existing privileges of princes.

13 January 2018

When will a bill lapse? - Indian Polity for UPSC Civil Services Exam

When will a bill lapse?


Indian Polity Books

A bill pending in Lok sabha, which originated in Lok sabha lapses.

A bill pending in Lok sabha, which is given to it by Rajya sabha also lapses.

A bill passed by Lok sabha but pending in Rajya sabha also lapses.

When the Lok Sabha is dissolved, all business including bills, resolutions, motions , notices, petitions and so on pending before it lapse.

Such Bills must be reintroduced in the newly-constituted Lok Sabha to be pursued further.

11 January 2018

Works of Banadatta - Indian History for UPSC Civil Services

Works of Banadatta

Banadatta was the court poet of Harshavardhana.

Banabhatta was a Sanskrit scholar & poet of India.

Bana’s main works include a biography of Harsha, the Harshacharita & one of the world’s earliest novels, Kadambari.

He was the Asthana Kavi in the time of King Harshavardhana, who reigned in the yrs 606–647 CE in north India.

The other works attributed to him is the Parvatiparinaya.

Indian History for UPSC Civil Services Exam

8 January 2018

Pluto is not the farthest planet from the Earth or Sun - World Geography for UPSC Civil Services Exam

Pluto is not the farthest planet from the Earth or Sun


The celestial body farthest from the Earth is Neptune.

Pluto, formal designation 134340 Pluto, is the 2nd -most-massive known dwarf planet in the Solar System, after Eris & the tenth-most-massive body observed directly orbiting the Sun.

Like other members of the Kuiper belt, Pluto is composed primarily of rock & ice & is relatively small.

Originally classified as the ninth planet from the Sun, Pluto was recategorized as a dwarf planet & plutoid owing to the discovery that it is only one of several big bodies within the Kuiper belt. one-6th the mass of the Earth’s Moon & one-3rd its volume.

It has an eccentric & highly inclined orbit that takes it from 30 to 49 AU (4.4–7.4 billion km) from the Sun. This causes Pluto to periodically come closer to the Sun than Neptune.

Pluto gets as close as 4.44 billion km. But its orbit is so elliptical that it gets out to a distance of 7.38 billion km.

In fact, there are times in Pluto’s orbit when Neptune passes it. Then Neptune really is the farthest planet from the Sun.

7 January 2018

Social System of the Harappans - Indian History for UPSC Civil Services Exam

Social System of the Harappans


The archaeological record of the Indus civilization provides practically no evidence of armies, kings, slaves, social conflict, prisons, & other often negative traits that we traditionally related with early civilizations.

Besides, compared to other ancient civilizations the houses were of nearly equal size signalling a more egalitarian social structure

If there were neither slaves nor kings, a more egalitarian system of governance may have been practiced.

So, the Social System of the Harappans was fairly egalitarian.

3 January 2018

Tirthankaras in Jainism - Indian History for UPSC Civil Services Exam

Tirthankaras in Jainism


In Jainism, Rishabh was the 1st of the 24 Tirthankaras who established the Ikshavaku dynasty.

He was the 1st Tirthankara of the present age. As of this, he was called Adinath. He is indicated in the Hindu text of the Bhagavata Purana as an avatar of Vishnu.

In Jainism, a Tirthankara is a human being who helps in attaining liberation & enlightenment as an “Arihant” by destroying all of their soul constraining (ghati) karmas, became a role-model & leader for those seeking spiritual guidance.

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